Explosive growth in artificial intelligence and machine learning is fueling new capabilities in medicine, aerospace, manufacturing, and consumer products. Examples of ECE research in this area include the development of brain-machine interfaces for advanced medical treatments for loss of vision and mobility, as well as the creation of virtual reality environments for physical rehabilitation and behavioral therapy for autism. In the area of acoustic signal processing, researchers are using ultra low-frequency sound to identify defects in products and even tell whether there are worms or insects in agricultural imports such as apple crops without damaging them. Speech processing researchers are using Automatic Speech Recognition technology to create language learning and pronunciation training systems that will help second language learners improve their speech patterns. In the area of imaging, ECE researchers are working on computational photography methods that increase video resolution and allow the creation of 3D stereo models from a single camera image and designing methods for using structured light and hyperspectral imaging to improve 3D scanning and information extraction from visual data.