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Sustainable Machining Research Laboratory

The Sustainable Machining Research Laboratory within the Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing (ISM) at the University of Kentucky has been actively involved in experimental investigation, modeling and optimization of machining operations focusing on fundamental understanding of process mechanics and applications.  
A major sustainability issue in machining is the indiscriminate use of cutting fluids, which impose an economic and environmental burden, and are hazardous to operator health due to long-term exposure. Hence, considerable research effort is being directed towards advancing dry, near-dry and cryogenic machining processes as substitutes for the traditional flood-cooled machining. This research is also aimed at modeling the machining processes to achieve improved surface integrity, to enhance product performance and life. 

Current major research focus areas are:

  • Predictive modeling and optimization of dry, near-dry and cryogenic machining operations (turning, milling, drilling, etc.)
  • Process modeling and analysis of machining performance (tool-wear/tool-life, chip-form/chip breakability, surface integrity, part accuracy and cutting forces/torque/power, etc.)


Professor and James F. Hardymon Chair in Manufacturing Systems; Director of Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing

Partial List of Recently Funded Research Projects


From the list of over 68 funded projects during the last three decades totaling over $70M.

National Science Foundation (NSF), $1,000,000, Co-PI (PI: Ian McClure), (NSF Engines Development Award: Advancing Carbon Centric Circular Economy Technologies for Advanced Manufacturing Solutions (KY, TN) - Generating Advanced Manufacturing Excellence for Change (GAME Change) for the Southeastern Commerce Corridor), 2023-25.

National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), $135,241, Co-PI (PI: Badurdeen) (A Comprehensive Approach for Product Circularity Assessment Towards Sustainable Value Creation),2023-24.

Army Research Laboratory (ARL), $7,301,939, PI (Thermo-Mechanical Modeling and Characterization of Additive Friction Stir Deposition (AFSD)), 2021-26.

Army Research Laboratory (ARL), $3,186,186, Co-PI (PI: Fazleena Badurdeen) (Development of Smart Additive and Hybrid Manufacturing Systems), 2021-26.

Army Research Laboratory (ARL), $5,893,081, Co-PI (PI. James Caudill) (Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing (CSAM) for Applications at Extreme Conditions), 2021-26.

Army Research Laboratory (ARL), $4,114,098, PI (Processing and Characterization of Flash Steel), 2022-26.

National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST), $125,077, Co-PI, (PI: Fazleena Badurdeen) (A Metrics-based System for Evaluating the Circularity of Consumer Electronics Products), 2022-23.

National Science Foundation (NSF), $444,405, Co-PI (PI: Peng Wang), (Understanding Manufacturing Process Dynamics and Machine Tool Anomaly Detection Through Process Sensing and Machine Learning), 2020-23.



  • Shokrani, A., P.J. Arrazola, D. Biermann, P. Mativenga and I.S. Jawahir, “Sustainable Machining: Technological Advances in Response to Climate Emergency”, Annals of the CIRP, Vol. 73(2), 2024.
  • Volker Schulze, Jan Aurich, I.S. Jawahir, Bernhard Karpuschewski and Jiwang Yan, “Surface Conditioning in Cutting and Abrasive Processes”, Annals of the CIRP, Vol. 73(2), 2024.
  • K. Ullrich, M. von Elling, K. Gutzeit, M. Dix, M. Weigold, J.C. Aurich, R. Wertheim, I.S. Jawahir, H. Ghadbeigi, “AI-based Multi-objective Optimisation of Total Machining Performance”, CIRP J. Manufacturing Science and Technology, Vol. 50, 2024, pp. 40-54.
  • Rodrigo Henriques Lopes da Silva, Julius Schoop, Amauri Hassui, and I. S. Jawahir, “Inconel 625 Sustainable Milling Surface Integrity and the Dependence on Alloy Processing Route”, Int. J. Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 130, 2024, pp. 4493-4512.
  • Russell, Matthew, Peng Wang, Shaopeng Liu, and I. S. Jawahir, "Mixed-Up Experience Replay for Adaptive Online Condition Monitoring." IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 71(2), 2024, pp. 1979-1986.
  • Rachele Bertolini, Stefania Bruschi, Andrea Ghiotti, Enrico Savio and I. S. Jawahir, “Surface Integrity and Superelastic Response of Nitinol after Additive Manufacturing and Finish Machining”, Annals of the CIRP, Vol. 72(1), 2023, pp. 501-504.
  • Badurdeen, Fazleena, S. Srivastava, D. Okunev and I.S. Jawahir, “Digital Integration of Total Lifecycle Tools for Sustainable Product Design”, Int. J. Sustainable Manufacturing, Vol. 5 (2-4), 2022, pp. 217-237.
  • Chen, G., J. Caudill, C. Ren and I.S. Jawahir, “"Numerical Modeling of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Orthogonal Cutting Considering Microstructure Dependent Work Hardening and Energy Density-based Failure Behaviors", J. Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 82, 2022, pp. 750-764.
  • Nagaraj, Arjun, Alper Uysal, Suhasini Gururaja and I.S. Jawahir, “Analysis of Surface Integrity in Drilling Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Material Under Various Cooling/Lubricating Conditions”, J. Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 82, 2022, pp. 124-137.  
  • Buddhika M. Hapuwatte, K. Daniel Seevers and I.S. Jawahir, “Closed-loop Production Planning with Metrics-based Product Sustainability Evaluation for Advancing Circular Economy”, J. Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 64, 2022, pp. 275-287.
  • Melkote, S., S.Y. Liang, T. Ozel, I.S. Jawahir, Stephenson, D.A. and Wang, B., 2022. A Review of Advances in Modeling of Conventional Machining Processes: From Merchant to the Present. ASME J. Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol. 144(11), 110801, November 2022, pp. 1-49.
  • Nguyen, H.G., A. Pramanik, A.K. Basak, Y. Dong, C. Prakash, S. Debnath, S. Shankar, I.S. Jawahir, S. Dixit and D. Buddhi, “A Critical Review on Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties”, J. Materials Research and Technology, Vol. 18, 2022. pp. 4641-4661.
  • Alborz Shokrani, Joseph Betts and I S. Jawahir, “Improved Machining Performance and Surface Integrity in Finish-machining of Inconel 718 with Electrically-charged Tungsten Disulphide MQL”, Annals of the CIRP, Vol. 71(1), 2022, pp. 109-112.
  • Yang, S., D. Umbrello, O.W. Dillon, Jr. and I.S. Jawahir, “Numerical Investigation of Dynamic Recrystallization Induced Microstructural Evolution in Cryogenic
  • Burnishing of Co-Cr-Mo Biomaterial”, J. Materials Engineering and Performance, March 2022, pp. 1-18. (https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-022-06738-z)
  • Hapuwatte, B.M., Fazleena Badurdeen, Adib Bagh and I.S. Jawahir, “Optimizing Sustainability Performance through Component Commonality for Multi-Generational Products”, J. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 180, 2022, 105999. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2021.105999).
  • Huang, B., Y. Kaynak, Y. Sun, M.K. Khraisheh and I.S. Jawahir, “Surface Layer Modification by Cryogenic Burnishing of Al 7050-T7451 Alloy with Near Ultra-fine Grained Structure, ASME J. Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Vol. 144(3), 2022: 031002. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2015.03.097).
  • Chen, G., J. Caudill, Shi Chen and I.S. Jawahir, “Machining-Induced Surface integrity in Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V:  An Investigation of Cutting-Edge Radius and Cooling/Lubricating Strategies”, J. Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 74, 2022, pp. 353-364.
  • Andrea De Bartolomeis, Stephen T. Newman, I.S. Jawahir, Dirk Biermann and Alborz Shokrani, “Future Research Directions in the Machining of Inconel 718”, J. Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 297, 2021, 117260. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2021.117260).
  • Hapuwatte, B.M. and I.S. Jawahir, “A Closed-loop Sustainable Product Design for Circular Economy”, J. Industrial Ecology, Vol. 25(6), 2021, pp. 1430-1446.
  • Uysal, A., and I. S. Jawahir, "Analysis of Slip-line Model for Serrated Chip Formation in Orthogonal Machining of AISI 304 Stainless Steel under Various Cooling/Lubricating Conditions", J. Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 67, 2021, pp. 447-460.
  • Yang, S., O.W. Dillon, Jr., D.A. Puleo and I.S. Jawahir, “Enhancement of Wear Resistance for Improved Functional Performance of Co-Cr-Mo Hip Implants through Cryogenic Surface Treatment: A Case Study”, Machining Science and Technology, Vol. 25(3), 2021, pp 455-476.
  • Hamaid Mahmood Khan, Yusuf Karabulut, Ozhan Kitay, Yusuf Kaynak and I.S. Jawahir, “Influence of Post-processing Operations on Surface Integrity of Metal Components Produced by Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing: A Review”, Machining Science and Technology, Vol. 25(1), 2021, pp. 118-176.
  • Jawahir, I.S., Julius Schoop, Yusuf Kaynak, A.K. Balaji, Ranajit Ghosh and Tao Lu, “Progress Towards Modeling and Optimization of Sustainable Machining Processes” ASME-MED Special Issue, ASME J. Manufacturing Science and Engg., Vol. 142(11), 2020, pp. 110811(01-31).
  • Kumar, D. S. Gururaja and I.S. Jawahir, “Machinability and Surface Integrity of Ti/CFRP/Ti Hybrid Composite Laminates under Dry and Cryogenic Conditions”, J. Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 58, 2020, pp. 1075-1087.
  • Sales, W.F, Julius M Schoop, Leonardo R Ribeiro, Alisson R Machado and I.S. Jawahir, “A Review of Surface Integrity in Machining of Hardened Steels”, J Manufacturing Processes, Vol. 58, 2020, pp. 136-162.
  • Kaynak, Y., S. Manchiraju, I.S. Jawahir and D. Biermann, “Chip Formation and Phase Transformation in Orthogonal Machining of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy: Microstructure-based Modelling and Experimental Validation” Annals of the CIRP, 69(1), 2020, pp. 85-88.
  • Uysal, A, James R.  Caudill, Julius Schoop and I.S. Jawahir, “Minimizing Carbon Emissions and Machining Costs with Improved Human Health in Sustainable Machining of Austenitic Stainless Steel through Multi-objective Optimization”, Int. J. Sustainable Manufacturing, Vol. 4, No. 2-4, 2020, pp. 281-299.
  • Abedini, A., W. Li, F. Badurdeen and I.S. Jawahir, “A Metric-based Framework for Sustainable Production Scheduling”, J. Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 54, 2020, pp. 174-185.