SUMMARY  OF  MAJOR  ACCOMPLISHMENTS

 

Vijay P. Singh

 

January 2007

 

 

I.  RESEARCH  (AND  LEADERSHIP)  CONTRIBUTIONS  TO  ELECTROLUMINESCENT  DISPLAY DEVICES AND SOLAR CELLS

 

A. Electroluminescent Display Devices

 

  1. Did pioneering research in electron transport analysis in electroluminescent displays and developed the first analytical model for blue emitting SrS: Ce, a.c. thin film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) display devices [1]-[6].
  2. Developed the first analytical model for blue emitting SrS: Cu, Ag, a.c. thin film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) display devices [7]-[8].
  3. Developed an analytical model for yellow emitting ZnS: Mn, a.c. thin film electroluminescent (ACTFEL) display devices [9]-[12].
  4. Developed a theoretical model for yellow emitting, ZnS: Mn, direct current powder electroluminescent (DCPEL) display devices [13]-[14].

 

B.  Solar Cells

 

  1. Pioneered the development of thin film solar cell technologies using the CdS/CdTe and CdS/ Cu2S photovoltaic devices. This work started in 1974 and is continuing, now including other technologies like nanostructures, organic semiconductors and CIS/CdS, as well.   Selected patents and publications are listed in [15]-[34].
  2. Designed, fabricated and demonstrated the lightweight, flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell on a molybdenum foil substrate, with an open circuit voltage of 824 mV [25], [28].
  3. Designed, fabricated and demonstrated the CuPc/PTCBI organic semiconductor solar cell that yielded an open-circuit voltage of 1.15 V, highest value of record in a single junction device [32], [34].
  4. Performed electron transport analysis in CdS/CdTe and CdS/ Cu2S heterojunction devices and developed theoretical models for device operation [23], [26], [28], [21], [17].
  5. Was the founding member (with 2 other scientists) and President, in 1982-83, of a start up company called Photon Energy Inc, in El Paso, Texas.  The company developed CdS/CdTe solar cell technology using inexpensive spray pyrolysis techniques.  Pilot line production was set up and the product demonstrated.  After 6 years of development work, the company was sold to Golden Photon Inc., Golden, Colorado.  CdS/CdTe technology is still a leading contender for large scale manufacture of inexpensive solar cells.
  6. Was part of the original founding team (with 2 other scientists and 3 technicians) in 1976, of a start up company called Photon Power Inc, in El Paso, Texas.  The company developed copper sulfide solar cells as well as transparent conductive coatings used in solar cells and displays.  Copper sulfide solar cells suffered from long term stability problems and in 1982, technology developed by Photon Power Inc.was sold to Cherry Display Products Inc. who utilized the transparent conductive coating technology for their products.
  7. At Photon Power Inc. and Photon Energy Inc., my research work as Research Engineer and Research Manager and leadership work later as Research Manager and President led to,

(a)    12.5% efficient CdS/CdTe solar cell in 1983, which was the highest efficiency of record at that time.  Our group at Photon Energy Inc. (Scot Albright, John Jordan and Vijay Singh) held this world record for several years during the 1980s.  Several groups have since surpassed it; the highest efficiency in this cell now, 2 decades later, is close to 17%.

(b)    Engineering breakthrough designs and processes that enabled the assembly line (belt) production of large-scale solar panels automatically connected in series.  Photon Power Inc. pioneered the assembly line production of 24”x24” solar panels in 1977.

Many elements of these processes and technologies are in use today by the manufacturers of CdS/CdTe and other thin film solar panels.

 

II.  PROFESSIONAL  ACCOMPLISHMENTS

 

A. Industrial Research and Development

 

In 1976, after my post-doctoral research in photovoltaic devices at University of Delaware, I joined Photon Power Inc., El Paso, Texas as Research Engineer to become a part of a founding team of 3 scientists and 3 technicians at this start-up R & D Company.   I was instrumental in pioneering the development of the sprayed thin film CdS/Cu2S and CdS/CdTe solar cells and hold several patents in this field.  In 1977, new investments came in from an oil co., CFP/TOTAL of France and LOF Inc. of Toledo, Ohio and, within a couple of years, our company grew from 6 to 105 employees.  I was promoted to Section Head, Device Development in 1980 and to the Manager of Materials and Device Research in 1981.  Photon Power Inc. was sold in early 1982 and two colleagues and  I went on to start a new company, Photon Energy Inc. in March 1982.  I served as President and Research Manager till September 1983 when I joined the local university as a faculty member.  I continued to do consulting work for Photon Energy Inc. in the development of photovoltaic devices.  Since then, I have consulted with several other companies as well, in the area of optoelectronic device research and development.

        

B.  Academic and Government Research

        

In September 1983, I joined the faculty of the Electrical Engineering Department at The University of Texas at El Paso as an Associate Professor.  I have been, or am the Principal Investigator on more than twenty funded research projects in the area of optoelectronic devices and high speed electron devices. I did research work on electroluminescent display devices at the U.S. Army Electronics Technology and Devices Lab, Fort Monmouth, NJ during summers of 1986, 1987 and 1988 and in the area of optical turbulence at Atmospheric Sciences Lab, White Sands Missile Range, NM during summer 1989. I have also completed several consulting assignments in the development of high temperature superconductors and electronic display devices with government and university laboratories. In September 1990, I was promoted to full Professor of Electrical Engineering and to Schellenger Chair and Director of Electronic Devices Laboratory in 1993. From 1997-1999, I was the Associate Dean for Research for the College of Engineering at the University of Texas.

 

In January 2000, I joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at University of Kentucky (UK) as Chairman, Professor and Earl Robinson Chair in Engineering.  For the past 7 years at UK, I have continued my research activities in solar cells, display devices and nanoelectronics.

         

C. Teaching

        

As a faculty member since September 1983, I have taught graduate and undergraduate courses in nanoelectronic devices, advanced optoelectronic devices, advanced semiconductor devices, integrated circuits, ultra-fast electron devices for supercomputers, high speed computer design, electronic materials, circuits and networks. I have developed four new graduate courses and two new undergraduate courses.

 

D.  Entrepreneurship

  

The road to entrepreneurship for me began in 1974 at the University of Delaware where I did a couple of years of post- doctoral research work as a Research Assistant Professor at the Institute of Energy Conversion.  From that basic research in solar cells evolved several ideas for novel device structures involving spray deposited cadmium sulfide and copper sulfide semiconductors.  As these ideas developed and patents were obtained, six of us, three scientists and three technicians, began work at a start up company called Photon Power Inc.   The company developed copper sulfide solar cells as well as transparent conductive coatings used in solar cells and displays.  Copper sulfide solar cells suffered from long term stability problems and the company was sold to Cherry Display Products Inc. who utilized the transparent conductive coating technology for their products.

 

Later in 1982, I was instrumental in developing a new solar cell design based on cadmium telluride and we found the venture capital and the three of us started a new company called Photon Energy Inc.  Pilot line production was set up and the product developed.  After 6 years of development work, the company was sold to Golden Photon Inc., a subsidiary of Coors.

 

Since then, I have continued basic and applied research in solar cells in an academic setting,  moving from solar cells for terrestrial applications to those for space applications and am now engaged in developing inexpensive organic and nanostructured solar cell designs at the University of Kentucky.  We have achieved record high voltages in these cells and are working to increase current and power output.  Once these technical problems are solved, my graduate and postdoctoral students and I hope to be able to start a company that will engineer the scale up in size and quantity so that solar panels can be manufactured in a profitable fashion.

      

E. Management

 

As the Chair of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Kentucky from January 2000 to present, I have held the supervisory responsibility for twenty-five faculty and six staff members.  I have provided the leadership and initiative to establish a new degree program and two new research centers.  Specifically,

 

  1. A bachelor’s degree program (B.S.) in computer engineering was added in 2005 to the B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. programs in electrical engineering.  Also, earlier, the  department’s name was changed from the Department of Electrical Engineering to the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
  2. Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CeNSE) was established in 2001 in the College of Engineering at UK.  Faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering play a leading role in this research center.
  3. Center for Visualization and Virtual Environments (CVVE) was established in 2003 in the College of Engineering at UK.  Faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering play a leading role in this research center.

 

As the Director of the Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CeNSE), from July 2001 to 2005, I  provided leadership for seven core faculty members ( and another 10 less active faculty participants) and about 25 graduate students and post doctoral fellows who conduct research in this center. 

 

As the Associate Dean for Research during (1997-1999), I administered various research issues in the College of Engineering at the University of Texas at El Paso, which had sixty faculty members in five departments. With the intent of nourishing scholarly activity and enhancing sponsored research activities, I initiated and established eleven research focus groups among the college faculty. I also spearheaded new thrust to establish an interdisciplinary Manufacturing program which would serve the needs of industry and students, leading finally to a new degree of Ph.D. in Manufacturing.

 

As the Director of the Electronic Devices Laboratory for ten years (1989-1999), at University of Texas, I was  in charge of a large number of student researchers/employees. Typical size of our research group was twenty-five members, including 3 faculty members, 4 Ph.D. and 11 M.S. students and 7 undergraduate student researchers.  Over all these years, I have managed research grants and contract funds in millions of dollars.

 

As the Research Manager at Photon Power Inc., I was in charge of fifteen employees including seven scientists, over a period of about three years. (1981-1983).

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SELECTED PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS

 

  1. “A model for Electroluminescence in SrS: Ce ACTFEL Display Devices”, V.P. Singh and D.C. Morton, IEEE Transaction on Electron Devices, vol. 39, no. 6, June 1992, pp 1331-1340.
  2.  “Electron Energy Distribution at the Insulator-Semiconductor Interface in A.C. Thin Film Electroluminescent Devices”, A. Aguilera, V.P. Singh and D.C. Morton, IEEE Transactions On Electron Devices, vol. 41, no. 8, pp 1357-1363, July 1994.
  3. "Electron Ejection Processes at Insulator Semiconductor Interfaces in ACTFEL Display Devices," S. Bhaskaran, V. P. Singh and D.C. Morton, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 42. No. 10, October 1995, pp. 1756-l762.
  4. "Current Crowding and Phosphor Efficacy- in ACTFEL Display Devices," V. P. Singh, S.  Bhaskaran and J. C. McClure, Journal of the Society for Information Display vol. 4, no.2, pp.59-63, July 1996.
  5. "Luminescence Characteristics of SrS:CeF3 Thin Film Electroluminescent Devices," by V. P. Singh, D.C. Morton and M.R. Miller, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 35, No.1, pp.38-47, January 1988.
  6. "Luminescence Response of SrS:CeF3 ACTFEL Devices to Various Pulse Waveform," by V. P. Singh and D.C. Morton, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 36, no.1, pp.54-62, January 1989.
  7. “An Analytical Model for Electron Transport and Luminance in SrS: Cu, Ag ACTFEL Display Devices,” Vijay P. Singh, Praveen Sivakumar, Alberto Aguilera, David C. Morton, and Eric Forsythe. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 51, #3 (March 2004), pp. 357-363.
  8. “Modeling of Electron Transport and Luminance in SrS: Cu, Ag ACTFEL Display Devices”, V.P. Singh, Aguilera, A. Garcia, and D.C. Morton, IEEE Transactions On Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 10, October 2001, pp 2242-2248.
  9. “Phosphor Current in ZnS: Mn ACTFEL Display Devices”, V.P. Singh, Q. Xu, J.C. McClure and D.C. Morton, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 72(9), Nov. 1992, pp 4148-4155.
  10. "Analysis of ZnS:Mn Type A. C. Thin Film E1ectroluminescent Display Devices with Bulk Traps," V. Singh, W. Majid, D. Morton, Journal of Society for Information Display, vol. 1, No.2, pp. 135-141 June 1993.
  11. "A Computationally Simple Model for Hysteretic Thin Film  Electroluminescent Devices," by J.M. Jarem and V. P. Singh, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 33, no.11, pp. 1834-1841, November 1988.
  12. "Electric Field and Conduction Current in A. C. Thin Film Electroluminescent Display Devices," by V. P. Singh, D.C. Morton and S. Krishna, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.70, Aug. 1991, pp.1811-18l9.  
  13. "Current Transport and Aging in Direct Current Powder Electroluminescent Display Devices," J. A. Raposo, V. P. Singh, J.C. McClure, R.G. Bell and J.W. Mayo, Journal of the SID, vol. 1, No.4, pp. 397-403, December 1993.
  14. "A study of Modified Structures for Reduced Aging Effects in DCPEL Display Devices," by V. P. Singh, J.A. Raposo, J.C. McClure, R.G. Bell and J.W. Mayo, Proc. of SID-93 International Symposium, Seattle, May 16-21, 1993, pp. 859-862.
  15. "Polycrystalline Photovoltaic Cell," United States Patent No.4, 362,896; Inventor: V. P. Singh, Assignee: Photon Power Inc., Issue date: December 7, 1982.
  16. "Method of Making a CdS/Cu2S Photovoltaic Cell," United Sates Patent No.4, 404,734; Inventor:  V. P. Singh, Assignee: Photon Power Inc., Issue date: September 20, 1983.
  17. "Analysis of Capacitance Voltage Measurements on Heat Treated Cu2-xS/CdS Heterojunctions," by R. B. Hall and V. P. Singh, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.50, No.10, pp. 6406-6412, October 1979.
  18. "Sprayed Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Films for Cu2S/ZnxCdi-xS Heterojunction Solar Cells," by V. P. Singh and J.F. Jordan, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. EDL-2, No. 6 pp.137-138, June 1981.
  19.  “Junction Characteristics of CdS-CdTe Solar Cells," by S. P. Albright, V. P. Singh and J.F. Jordan, Solar Cells, vol. 24, pp.43-56, June 1988.
  20. "Grain Boundary Effects in Electron Beam Induced Currents in CdS/CdTe Solar Cells," by J.C. McClure, C.J. Chung and V. P. Singh, Solid State Communications, vol.75, pp.171-173 (1990).
  21. "Characterization of Thin Film CdS/CdTe Solar Cells," by V. P. Singh, H. Brafman and J.C. McClure, Solar Cells, vol. 31, 1991, pp. 23-38.
  22. "Evaporated Cadmium Telluride Films on Steel Foil Substrates," H. Chavez, R. Santiesteban, J.C. McClure and V. P. Singh, J. of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 6, pp. 21-24, 1995.
  23. "Analysis of Contact Degradation in CdS-CdTe Heterojunction Solar Cells," V. P. Singh, O.M. Erickson and J.'N. Chao, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.78, no.7, October 1995, pp. 4538-4542.
  24. "Physical and Electrical Characterization of CdS Films Deposited by Vacuum Evaporation, Solution Growth and Spray Pyrolysis, "by H. Chavez, M. Jordan, J. C. McClure, G. B. Lush, V. P. Singh, Journal of Materials Science, Materials in Electronics, vol. 8, No. 3, June 1997, pp. 151-157.
  25. “Thin film CdTe-CdS heterojunction solar cells on lightweight metal substrates”, by Vijay P. Singh, John McClure, G.B. Lush, W. Wang, X. Wang, G.W. Thompson, E. Clark, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 59 pp. 145-161, 1999.
  26. “Electro-optical Characterization and Modeling of Thin film CdS-CdTe Heterojunction solar Cells”, by Vijay P. Singh, David L.  Linam, David D. Dils, John C. McClure and G. B. Lush,  Solar Energy Materials and solar Cells,  Vol.63, No.4, pp.445-466, (August 2000).
  27. “Light and Voltage Dependence of the Junction Transport Properties of CdTe/CdS Photovoltaics,” Linam, D.L., V.P. Singh, J.C. McClure, G.B. Lush, X. Mathew, and P.J. Sebastian, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells Vol. 70, pp. 335-344 (2001).  
  28. “Design Issues in the Fabrication of CdS-CdTe Solar Cells on Molybdenum Foil Substrates,” Singh, V.P. and J. McClure, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 76, pp. 369-385 (2002).
  29. “Ultrasound Assisted Fabrication of Nanoporous CdS Films,” R. S. Singh, S. Sanagapalli, V.    Jayaraman and V. P. Singh. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 4 (January/February 2004), pp. 164-168 (2004).
  30. “Characteristics of nanocrystalline CdS films fabricated by sonochemical, microwave and solution growth methods for solar cell applications,” V.P. Singh, R.S. Singh, G.W. Thompson, V. Jayaraman, S. Sanagapalli and V.K. Rangari. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 81 Issue 3, pp. 293-303 (February 2004).
  31. “Nano-structured CdTe, CdS and TiO2 for thin film solar cells applications,” R.S. Singh, V. K. Rangari, S. Sanagapalli, V. Jayaraman, S. Mahendra and V. P. Singh. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 82/1-2, pp. 315-330 (2004).
  32. Copper-phthalocyanine-based organic solar cells with high open circuit voltage”, V.P. Singh*, R. S. Singh, B. Parthasarathy, A. Aguilera, J. Anthony and M. Payne, Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 86, pp. 082106-1 to 082106-3, (February 2005).
  33. “Porous alumina templates and nanostructured CdS for thin film solar cell applications”, Alberto Aguilera, Vivekanand Jayaraman, Srikalyan Sanagapalli, R. Suresh Singh, Visweswaran Jayaraman, Karen Sampson, and Vijay P. Singh, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 90, pp. 713-726, 2006.
  34. “Characterization of High Photovoltage CuPc- Based Organic Solar Cell Structures”, V.P. Singh, B. Parthasarathy, R.S. Singh, A. Aguilera, John Anthony and M.Payne,  Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 90, pp. 798-812, 2006

 

 

=========================================================