OF MAJOR ACCOMPLISHMENTS
Vijay P. Singh
(AND LEADERSHIP) CONTRIBUTIONS
TO ELECTROLUMINESCENT DISPLAY DEVICES AND SOLAR CELLS
A. Electroluminescent Display Devices
- Did pioneering research in electron
transport analysis in electroluminescent displays and developed the first
analytical model for blue emitting SrS: Ce, a.c. thin film
electroluminescent (ACTFEL) display devices -.
the first analytical model for blue emitting SrS: Cu, Ag, a.c. thin film
electroluminescent (ACTFEL) display devices -.
an analytical model for yellow emitting ZnS: Mn, a.c. thin film
electroluminescent (ACTFEL) display devices -.
a theoretical model for yellow emitting, ZnS: Mn, direct current powder
electroluminescent (DCPEL) display devices -.
the development of thin film solar cell technologies using the CdS/CdTe
and CdS/ Cu2S
photovoltaic devices. This work started in 1974 and is continuing, now including
other technologies like nanostructures, organic semiconductors and
CIS/CdS, as well. Selected patents
and publications are listed in -.
fabricated and demonstrated the lightweight,
flexible CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell on a molybdenum foil substrate,
with an open circuit voltage of 824 mV , .
- Designed, fabricated and demonstrated the
CuPc/PTCBI organic semiconductor solar cell that yielded an
open-circuit voltage of 1.15 V, highest value of record in a single
junction device , .
electron transport analysis in CdS/CdTe and CdS/ Cu2S heterojunction devices and developed
theoretical models for device operation , , , , .
the founding member (with 2 other scientists) and President, in 1982-83,
of a start up company called Photon
Energy Inc, in El Paso, Texas. The
company developed CdS/CdTe solar cell technology using inexpensive spray
pyrolysis techniques. Pilot line
production was set up and the product demonstrated. After 6 years of development work, the
company was sold to Golden Photon Inc., Golden, Colorado. CdS/CdTe technology is still a leading
contender for large scale manufacture of inexpensive solar cells.
- Was part of the original founding
team (with 2 other scientists and 3 technicians) in 1976, of a start up company called Photon Power Inc, in
El Paso, Texas. The company
developed copper sulfide solar cells as well as transparent conductive
coatings used in solar cells and displays.
Copper sulfide solar cells suffered from long term stability
problems and in 1982, technology developed by Photon Power Inc.was sold to
Cherry Display Products Inc. who utilized the transparent conductive
coating technology for their products.
- At Photon Power Inc. and Photon Energy Inc.,
my research work as Research Engineer and Research Manager and leadership
work later as Research Manager and President led to,
efficient CdS/CdTe solar cell in 1983, which was the highest efficiency of
record at that time. Our group at Photon
Energy Inc. (Scot Albright, John Jordan and Vijay Singh) held this world record
for several years during the 1980s.
Several groups have since surpassed it; the highest efficiency in this
cell now, 2 decades later, is close to 17%.
breakthrough designs and processes that enabled the assembly line (belt)
production of large-scale solar panels automatically connected in series. Photon Power Inc. pioneered the assembly line
production of 24”x24” solar panels in 1977.
Many elements of these processes and technologies are in use today by the
manufacturers of CdS/CdTe and other thin film solar panels.
A. Industrial Research and Development
In 1976, after my
post-doctoral research in photovoltaic devices at University of Delaware, I
joined Photon Power Inc., El Paso, Texas as Research Engineer to become a part
of a founding team of 3 scientists and 3 technicians at this start-up R & D
Company. I was instrumental in
pioneering the development of the sprayed thin film CdS/Cu2S and CdS/CdTe solar
cells and hold several patents in this field.
In 1977, new investments came in from an oil co., CFP/TOTAL of France
and LOF Inc. of Toledo, Ohio and, within a couple of years, our company grew from
6 to 105 employees. I was promoted to
Section Head, Device Development in 1980 and to the Manager of Materials and
Device Research in 1981. Photon Power
Inc. was sold in early 1982 and two colleagues and I went on to start a new company, Photon
Energy Inc. in March 1982. I served as
President and Research Manager till September 1983 when I joined the local
university as a faculty member. I
continued to do consulting work for Photon Energy Inc. in the development of
photovoltaic devices. Since then, I have
consulted with several other companies as well, in the area of optoelectronic
device research and development.
Academic and Government Research
In September 1983, I
joined the faculty of the Electrical Engineering Department at The University
of Texas at El Paso as an Associate Professor.
I have been, or am the Principal Investigator on more than twenty funded
research projects in the area of optoelectronic devices and high speed electron
devices. I did research work on electroluminescent display devices at the U.S.
Army Electronics Technology and Devices Lab, Fort Monmouth, NJ during summers
of 1986, 1987 and 1988 and in the area of optical turbulence at Atmospheric
Sciences Lab, White Sands Missile Range, NM during summer 1989. I have also
completed several consulting assignments in the development of high temperature
superconductors and electronic display devices with government and university
laboratories. In September 1990, I was promoted to full Professor of Electrical
Engineering and to Schellenger Chair and Director of Electronic Devices
Laboratory in 1993. From 1997-1999, I was the Associate Dean for Research for
the College of Engineering at the University of Texas.
In January 2000, I
joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at University of Kentucky (UK)
as Chairman, Professor and Earl Robinson Chair in Engineering. For the past 7 years at UK, I have continued
my research activities in solar cells, display devices and nanoelectronics.
As a faculty member
since September 1983, I have taught graduate and undergraduate courses in
nanoelectronic devices, advanced optoelectronic devices, advanced semiconductor
devices, integrated circuits, ultra-fast electron devices for supercomputers,
high speed computer design, electronic materials, circuits and networks. I have
developed four new graduate courses and two new undergraduate courses.
The road to
entrepreneurship for me began in 1974 at the University of Delaware where I did
a couple of years of post- doctoral research work as a Research Assistant
Professor at the Institute of Energy Conversion. From that basic research in solar cells
evolved several ideas for novel device structures involving spray deposited
cadmium sulfide and copper sulfide semiconductors. As these ideas developed and patents were
obtained, six of us, three scientists and three technicians, began work at a
start up company called Photon Power Inc.
The company developed copper sulfide solar cells as well as transparent
conductive coatings used in solar cells and displays. Copper sulfide solar cells suffered from long
term stability problems and the company was sold to Cherry Display Products
Inc. who utilized the transparent conductive coating technology for their
Later in 1982, I was
instrumental in developing a new solar cell design based on cadmium telluride
and we found the venture capital and the three of us started a new company
called Photon Energy Inc. Pilot line
production was set up and the product developed. After 6 years of development work, the
company was sold to Golden Photon Inc., a subsidiary of Coors.
Since then, I have
continued basic and applied research in solar cells in an academic
setting, moving from solar cells for
terrestrial applications to those for space applications and am now engaged in
developing inexpensive organic and nanostructured solar cell designs at the
University of Kentucky. We have achieved
record high voltages in these cells and are working to increase current and power
output. Once these technical problems
are solved, my graduate and postdoctoral students and I hope to be able to
start a company that will engineer the scale up in size and quantity so that
solar panels can be manufactured in a profitable fashion.
As the Chair of the
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Kentucky
from January 2000 to present, I have held the supervisory responsibility for
twenty-five faculty and six staff members.
I have provided the leadership and initiative to establish a new degree
program and two new research centers.
- A bachelor’s degree program (B.S.) in
computer engineering was added in 2005 to the B.S., M.S. and Ph.D.
programs in electrical engineering.
Also, earlier, the
department’s name was changed from the Department of Electrical
Engineering to the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
- Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering
(CeNSE) was established in 2001 in the College of Engineering at UK. Faculty of the Department of Electrical
and Computer Engineering play a leading role in this research center.
- Center for Visualization and Virtual
Environments (CVVE) was established in 2003 in the College of Engineering
at UK. Faculty of the Department of
Electrical and Computer Engineering play a leading role in this research
As the Director of the Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering
(CeNSE), from July 2001 to 2005, I
provided leadership for seven core faculty members ( and another 10 less
active faculty participants) and about 25 graduate students and post doctoral
fellows who conduct research in this center.
As the Associate Dean
for Research during (1997-1999), I administered various research issues in the
College of Engineering at the University of Texas at El Paso, which had sixty
faculty members in five departments. With the intent of nourishing scholarly
activity and enhancing sponsored research activities, I initiated and
established eleven research focus groups among the college faculty. I also
spearheaded new thrust to establish an interdisciplinary Manufacturing program
which would serve the needs of industry and students, leading finally to a new
degree of Ph.D. in Manufacturing.
As the Director of the
Electronic Devices Laboratory for ten years (1989-1999), at University of
Texas, I was in charge of a large number
of student researchers/employees. Typical size of our research group was
twenty-five members, including 3 faculty members, 4 Ph.D. and 11 M.S. students
and 7 undergraduate student researchers.
Over all these years, I have managed research grants and contract funds
in millions of dollars.
As the Research Manager
at Photon Power Inc., I was in charge of fifteen employees including seven
scientists, over a period of about three years. (1981-1983).
BIBLIOGRAPHY/ SELECTED PATENTS AND
- “A model for
Electroluminescence in SrS: Ce ACTFEL Display Devices”, V.P. Singh and
D.C. Morton, IEEE Transaction on Electron Devices, vol. 39, no. 6, June
1992, pp 1331-1340.
- “Electron Energy Distribution at the
Insulator-Semiconductor Interface in A.C. Thin Film Electroluminescent
Devices”, A. Aguilera, V.P. Singh and D.C. Morton, IEEE Transactions On
Electron Devices, vol. 41, no. 8, pp 1357-1363, July 1994.
- "Electron Ejection
Processes at Insulator Semiconductor Interfaces in ACTFEL Display
Devices," S. Bhaskaran, V. P. Singh and D.C. Morton, IEEE Transactions
on Electron Devices, vol. 42. No. 10, October 1995, pp. 1756-l762.
Crowding and Phosphor Efficacy- in ACTFEL Display Devices," V. P.
Singh, S. Bhaskaran and J. C.
McClure, Journal of the Society for Information Display vol. 4, no.2,
pp.59-63, July 1996.
- "Luminescence Characteristics of
SrS:CeF3 Thin Film Electroluminescent Devices," by V. P.
Singh, D.C. Morton and M.R. Miller, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices,
Vol. 35, No.1, pp.38-47, January 1988.
- "Luminescence Response of SrS:CeF3
ACTFEL Devices to Various Pulse Waveform," by V. P. Singh and D.C.
Morton, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 36, no.1, pp.54-62,
- “An Analytical
Model for Electron Transport and Luminance in SrS: Cu, Ag ACTFEL Display Devices,”
Vijay P. Singh, Praveen Sivakumar, Alberto Aguilera, David C. Morton, and
Eric Forsythe. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 51, #3 (March
2004), pp. 357-363.
- “Modeling of Electron
Transport and Luminance in SrS: Cu, Ag ACTFEL Display Devices”, V.P. Singh,
Aguilera, A. Garcia, and D.C. Morton, IEEE Transactions On Electron
Devices, vol. 48, no. 10, October 2001, pp 2242-2248.
- “Phosphor Current in ZnS:
Mn ACTFEL Display Devices”, V.P. Singh, Q. Xu, J.C. McClure and D.C.
Morton, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 72(9), Nov. 1992, pp 4148-4155.
- "Analysis of
ZnS:Mn Type A. C. Thin Film E1ectroluminescent Display Devices with Bulk
Traps," V. Singh, W. Majid, D. Morton, Journal of Society for
Information Display, vol. 1, No.2, pp. 135-141 June 1993.
- "A Computationally Simple Model for
Hysteretic Thin Film
Electroluminescent Devices," by J.M. Jarem and V. P. Singh,
IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 33, no.11, pp. 1834-1841,
- "Electric Field and Conduction Current
in A. C. Thin Film Electroluminescent Display Devices," by V. P.
Singh, D.C. Morton and S. Krishna, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.70,
Aug. 1991, pp.1811-18l9.
Transport and Aging in Direct Current Powder Electroluminescent Display
Devices," J. A. Raposo, V. P. Singh, J.C. McClure, R.G. Bell and J.W.
Mayo, Journal of the SID, vol. 1, No.4, pp. 397-403, December 1993.
- "A study of Modified Structures for
Reduced Aging Effects in DCPEL Display Devices," by V. P. Singh, J.A.
Raposo, J.C. McClure, R.G. Bell and J.W. Mayo, Proc. of SID-93
International Symposium, Seattle, May 16-21, 1993, pp. 859-862.
- "Polycrystalline Photovoltaic
Cell," United States Patent No.4, 362,896; Inventor: V. P. Singh,
Assignee: Photon Power Inc., Issue date: December 7, 1982.
- "Method of Making a CdS/Cu2S
Photovoltaic Cell," United Sates Patent No.4, 404,734; Inventor: V. P. Singh, Assignee: Photon Power
Inc., Issue date: September 20, 1983.
- "Analysis of Capacitance Voltage
Measurements on Heat Treated Cu2-xS/CdS Heterojunctions,"
by R. B. Hall and V. P. Singh, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.50, No.10,
pp. 6406-6412, October 1979.
- "Sprayed Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Films for
Cu2S/ZnxCdi-xS Heterojunction Solar
Cells," by V. P. Singh and J.F. Jordan, IEEE Electron Device Letters,
vol. EDL-2, No. 6 pp.137-138, June 1981.
- “Junction Characteristics of CdS-CdTe
Solar Cells," by S. P. Albright, V. P. Singh and J.F. Jordan, Solar
Cells, vol. 24, pp.43-56, June 1988.
- "Grain Boundary Effects in Electron
Beam Induced Currents in CdS/CdTe Solar Cells," by J.C. McClure, C.J.
Chung and V. P. Singh, Solid State Communications, vol.75, pp.171-173
- "Characterization of Thin Film CdS/CdTe
Solar Cells," by V. P. Singh, H. Brafman and J.C. McClure, Solar
Cells, vol. 31, 1991, pp. 23-38.
- "Evaporated Cadmium Telluride Films on
Steel Foil Substrates," H. Chavez, R. Santiesteban, J.C. McClure and
V. P. Singh, J. of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol. 6,
pp. 21-24, 1995.
- "Analysis of Contact Degradation in
CdS-CdTe Heterojunction Solar Cells," V. P. Singh, O.M. Erickson and
J.'N. Chao, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.78, no.7, October 1995, pp.
- "Physical and Electrical
Characterization of CdS Films Deposited by Vacuum Evaporation, Solution
Growth and Spray Pyrolysis, "by H. Chavez, M. Jordan, J. C. McClure,
G. B. Lush, V. P. Singh, Journal of Materials Science, Materials in
Electronics, vol. 8, No. 3, June 1997, pp. 151-157.
film CdTe-CdS heterojunction solar cells on lightweight metal substrates”,
by Vijay P. Singh, John McClure, G.B. Lush, W. Wang, X. Wang, G.W.
Thompson, E. Clark, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 59 pp.
- “Electro-optical Characterization and
Modeling of Thin film CdS-CdTe Heterojunction solar Cells”, by Vijay P.
Singh, David L. Linam, David D.
Dils, John C. McClure and G. B. Lush,
Solar Energy Materials and solar Cells, Vol.63, No.4, pp.445-466, (August 2000).
- “Light and Voltage Dependence of the
Junction Transport Properties of CdTe/CdS Photovoltaics,” Linam, D.L.,
V.P. Singh, J.C. McClure, G.B. Lush, X. Mathew, and P.J. Sebastian, Solar
Energy Materials and Solar Cells Vol. 70, pp. 335-344 (2001).
- “Design Issues in the Fabrication of
CdS-CdTe Solar Cells on Molybdenum Foil Substrates,” Singh, V.P. and J.
McClure, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 76, pp.
- “Ultrasound Assisted Fabrication of
Nanoporous CdS Films,” R. S. Singh, S. Sanagapalli, V. Jayaraman and V. P. Singh. Journal
of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Vol. 4 (January/February 2004), pp.
of nanocrystalline CdS films fabricated by sonochemical, microwave and
solution growth methods for solar cell applications,” V.P. Singh, R.S.
Singh, G.W. Thompson, V. Jayaraman, S. Sanagapalli and V.K. Rangari. Solar
Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 81 Issue 3, pp. 293-303
CdTe, CdS and TiO2 for thin film solar cells applications,”
R.S. Singh, V. K. Rangari, S. Sanagapalli, V. Jayaraman, S. Mahendra and
V. P. Singh. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 82/1-2,
pp. 315-330 (2004).
- “Copper-phthalocyanine-based organic solar cells
with high open circuit voltage”, V.P. Singh*, R. S. Singh, B.
Parthasarathy, A. Aguilera, J. Anthony and M. Payne, Applied Physics
Letters, Vol. 86, pp. 082106-1 to 082106-3, (February 2005).
alumina templates and nanostructured CdS for thin film solar cell
applications”, Alberto Aguilera, Vivekanand Jayaraman, Srikalyan
Sanagapalli, R. Suresh Singh, Visweswaran Jayaraman, Karen Sampson, and
Vijay P. Singh, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, 90, pp.
- “Characterization of High Photovoltage CuPc- Based
Organic Solar Cell Structures”, V.P.
Singh, B. Parthasarathy, R.S. Singh, A. Aguilera, John Anthony and
M.Payne, Solar Energy
Materials & Solar Cells, 90, pp. 798-812, 2006