SECTION I: GENERAL INFORMATION
MINING ENGINEERING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY
From an enrollment of 273 students in 1876, the University of Kentucky has evolved from an Agricultural and Mechanical school to a state, coeducational, nationally accredited institution composed of 15 colleges, University Extension, and Graduate School. Currently, the University has an enrollment of more than 25,000 students on the Lexington Campus. The university's programs are offered by nearly 9,000 faculty and staff.
A small city in itself, the University has its own post office, bookstore, theaters, restaurants, barber shop, newspapers, radio station, television network, photographic service, printing plant, safety and security force, and hospital. The 670‑acre Lexington campus has more than 100 major buildings, including the Mining and Mineral Resources Building, which was dedicated officially on April 8, 1988.
With the opening of the Mining and Mineral Resources Building, of which we occupy nearly one‑half, the facilities for mining engineering have become among the most modern in the country. The opportunities for experimentation, research, and graduate study have expanded commensurately with the tripling of the space available. New, digitally controlled testing machines for rock mechanics, pilot‑scale‑sized ventilation tunnels with remote sensing and computer control of airflow, coal and petrography laboratories, mine electrical systems laboratory, an environmental laboratory, and an array of computers, which are networked throughout the building, all come together to support the advanced research needed for modern mining. Inasmuch as the other major tenant of the building is the Kentucky Geological Survey, a tremendous working resource is available for research on reserves evaluation and characterization.
Of primary importance among the auxiliary services provided by the University is its system of libraries. Resources of the W.T. Young Library and associate libraries include more than two million volumes and 3.2 million microform units. In terms of numbers of volumes, the University library is one of the top 50 research libraries in the United States.
The Robert E. Shaver Library of Engineering, occupying the entire third floor of the F. Paul Anderson Tower, is a division of the University's library system. The library has developed subject strength in such areas as nuclear engineering, mining and energy engineering, air and water pollution control, and materials science, in addition to the basic disciplines of engineering. These subject areas, as well as allied fields, are manifested in the library's collection of approximately 31,000 volumes. The latest findings of engineering research are reported in over 700 periodical subscriptions in the library.
The University of Kentucky is located in Lexington, a growing city with a population in excess of 260,000 in the heart of the renowned Bluegrass region: an area of gently rolling land of unexcelled beauty with more than 300 horse farms. Known as the thoroughbred horse center of America, Lexington has one of the finest race tracks in the country: Keeneland Race Course. The world's largest loose‑leaf tobacco markets are located here, as are many industries and corporate headquarters, including Lexmark, Toyota Motor Manufacturing USA, Inc., Ashland Oil's Valvoline Division, and approximately 40 coal-related companies.
Lexington, only 80 miles south of Cincinnati on Interstate 75 and 83 miles east of Louisville on Interstate 64, is less than a one‑day drive from all major metropolitan centers in the eastern and Midwestern areas of the country.
Because the University of Kentucky is located in Lexington, its Department of Mining Engineering has the advantage of being located at the center of the state that is a leading producer of coal. The benefits resulting from the dominance of its coal industry are seen further by its location midway between the Appalachian Coal Basin (Eastern Kentucky) and the Eastern Interior Coal Basin (Western Kentucky). Among mining people, Lexington is humorously referred to as the world's largest and finest coal camp.
The Lexington area is so rich in heritage that sightseeing is a major attraction, encompassing more than 200 years of living history. The presence of the University of Kentucky has enhanced the area, with a proliferation of functions ranging from the A.B. Chandler Medical Center to Rupp Arena, one of the world's largest basketball arenas, with a seating capacity of 23,600 fans. Kentucky's sports prowess is a matter of permanent record and is highly visible in the national sports archives. Other significant features include Transylvania University, the oldest institution of higher education west of the Allegheny Mountains; Lexington Theological Seminary; Kentucky Episcopal Seminary; and Ashland Baptist College. Lexington has the largest Community Concert Association in the country, where renowned artists and speakers appear regularly. Of great interest are the Lexington Philharmonic Orchestra, a strong chamber music series, the Lexington Ballet, and Arts Place. Lexington is also a strong theater town, served by several regular companies and various touring groups.
The climate is moderate with cool plateau breezes, cool summer nights, and no prolonged periods of heat, cold, rain, wind, or snow. Kentucky abounds in facilities that appeal to those who like the out‑of‑doors. Its outstanding system of State parks, together with the Daniel Boone National Forest, provide boating and associated water sports, fishing, hiking, camping and horseback riding. The famous Red River Gorge area of the Daniel Boone National Forest, a favorite of backpackers and canoeists, is only 50 miles by expressway from Lexington. Kentucky has good canoeing and white water rivers, and is famous for its caves and natural bridges. The Bluegrass region is one of the best areas in the United States for biking as it has a vast network of paved country roads from which to choose.
The optimal blending of the old with the new, together with the history, location, and resources available at the University of Kentucky, results in an ideal environment for the scholastic and professional development of the serious mining engineering student.
The University of Kentucky’s engineering and computer science faculty, numbering approximately 140, are nationally and internationally recognized. Among current and emeriti faculty, one is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, more that 20 have received the Presidential Young Investigator or CAREER Development Award from the National Science Foundation, and more than 25 are fellows in one or more professional societies. Twenty-three endowed faculty positions have been committed to support faculty who are nationally recognized for their excellence in teaching and distinguished scholarship.
The College includes eight centers and consortia, including the Kentucky Transportation Center, the Center for Robotics and Manufacturing Systems, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science, Vibro-Acoustics Consortium, Painting Technology Consortium, the Center for Aluminum Technology, the Center for Micro-Magnetic and Electronic Devices, and the Electron Microscopy Facility. The College is also affiliated with the Center for Applied Energy Research, Advanced Science and Technology Commercialization Center, the Center for Biomedical Engineering, and the Laboratory for Advanced Networking.
DEPARTMENT OF MINING ENGINEERING
The University of Kentucky's Department of Mining Engineering has the distinction of being both among the oldest and newest programs of its type in the nation. It is one of the oldest in that the program was founded as the School of Civil and Mining Engineering in 1866; newest in that it was only 1982, after a varied history of change reflecting conditions in the mining industry, that the department was upgraded from a transition program in Civil Engineering to departmental status.
In 1910, a college was established and given the name Mines and Metallurgy, but seven years later the college was amalgamated into a department within the College of Engineering. In 1966 the mining department was realigned with Civil Engineering. In 1977, the University Board of Trustees authorized the reestablishment of Mining Engineering as a separate and distinct department. In 1988, the Department moved to the Mining and Mineral Resources Building.
In keeping with its history and the renewed emphasis of the University's commitment to mining engineering, a distinguished national and international faculty has been assembled. Hence, in a continuing pursuit for excellence, the University of Kentucky's traditional land‑grant teaching, research, and service function is expanded further through the addition of faculty members recruited from among the world's finest mining programs. This faculty gives the Department of Mining Engineering an increased academic capability to become a leader in both the State's and the nation's minerals industry.
STATEMENT OF CAPABILITIES
The Department of Mining Engineering at the University of Kentucky has been favored with an excellent faculty, a sufficiency of space, and an abundance of modern equipment. This document attempts to describe succinctly the Department's capabilities in research and development for the benefit of potential research collaborators and sponsors. In summary, the mining faculty has access to 25,259 square feet of space and to equipment with an original purchase value in excess of $1.6 million. They are served by an elaborate but flexible computing network containing personal computers, an office LAN, and an integral bridge to the College of Engineering and university computing environments. There is unlimited electronic mail access.
Although described separately, the facilities of the UK Center for Applied Energy Research, CAER, are readily available to departmental researchers. A number of completed cooperative projects point to the open relationship between the Center and the Department. The CAER is a 60,000 square foot facility containing over $7 million in process development and analytical equipment.
The brief biographies that follow show the array of talents and interests possessed by the faculty members in mining engineering. More complete résumés are available for each individual.
John G. Groppo (Ph.D., University of Kentucky), Adjunct Assistant Professor: research conducted at the Center for Applied Energy Research. Research interests includes mineral processing, waste management, and environmental remediation.
Rick Q. Honaker (Ph.D., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Associate Professor: mineral processing, coal preparation, and fine particle separation.
G.T Lineberry (Ph. D., West Virginia University), Professor: mine plant engineering; underground mining operations. Research interests include evaluation, selection, and design of mobile mine equipment; advanced mechanical systems; operations research.
B. K. Parekh (Ph. D., The Pennsylvania State University), Adjunct Associate Professor: physical beneficiation, flotation, fine particle technologies, dewatering; surface, colloid, and solution chemistry. Research, at the Center for Applied Energy Research, includes basic and applied subjects for clean coal technology.
Joseph Sottile, Jr. (Ph.D., The Pennsylvania State University), Associate Professor: mine electrical systems and monitoring and control. Research interests include condition-based maintenance of electrical machinery, fault diagnostics, and mine electrical system safety.
Richard J. Sweigard (Ph. D., The Pennsylvania State University, P. E.), Chairman and Professor: geotechnology, groundwater, soil reconstruction, surface mining. Research interests include soil compaction, differential settling of mine backfill, reclamation, and slope stability.
Daniel Tao (Ph. D., Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University), Assistant Professor: mineral processing, coal preparation, surface chemistry. Research interests include fine particle separation, fine coal dewatering, column flotation, waste water treatment, and solid waste utilization.
Kot F. Unrug (D. Sc., Ph. D., Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow, Poland), Professor: underground construction, mine design, strata control. Research interests include broad aspects of applied rock mechanics; roof control; subsidence; field, scale model and laboratory testing.
Andrzej M. Wala (Ph. D., Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Krakow, Poland), Professor: mine ventilation, mine electricity, elements of mining. Research interests include dynamics of flow in mine ventilation networks; monitoring and control of ventilation networks; expert systems applications in mining; dynamics of diesel exhaust gas concentrations in confined headings; industrial testing; and computer simulation.
Jon C. Yingling (Ph. D., University of Pittsburgh), Associate Professor: operations research and industrial engineering in mining and mineral preparation. Research interests include optimization approaches to flow sheet design for mineral processing plants, liberation models, control systems for mine conveyor networks, and probabilistic approaches to slope stability analysis.
The Mining and Mineral Resources Building, located on Rose Street near the center of campus, is a handsome and spacious structure that houses four principal occupants: The Kentucky Geological Survey, the Department of Mining Engineering, the Kentucky Water Resources Research Institute, and the coal group of the Department of Geological Sciences. Mining has approximately 42 percent of the assigned space in the building. Specifically, this is a total of 25,259 square feet of space, of which 14,106 is devoted to laboratories; 7,898 to offices, classrooms, and other non-laboratory space; and 3,255 is shared with other building occupants.
Laboratories are designated by their function; space exists for each major sub discipline of mining engineering: rock mechanics testing, rock mechanics modeling, ventilation, gas and dust, mine electrical systems, coal preparation unit operations, coal testing, microscopic analysis of surfaces, environment and geotechnology, and computation and design. In addition, there are suitable rock cutting and shaping facilities, mineral processing preparation areas, and field studies staging areas.
The University of Kentucky has installed an IBM Multiprise 3000 H50 as its main unit for administrative computing. High performance research computing can be conducted on the HP Superdome cluster, composed of four HP 9000 Superdome servers. This cluster, composed of 224 HP PA-RISC 8700 processors, has an aggregate (peak) rating of 672 GFLOPS.
A. COAL AND MINERAL PREPARATION
Float-Sink Laboratory: vented cabinets for testing coal densities in heavy organic fluids.
Coal Drying Room: controlled ovens that conform with ASTM standards for air drying of coal.
Crushing, Grinding, and Sample Preparation: Hardgrove grindability tester, hammer mill, Holmes 10 x 15 hammer-mill crusher, 5-in by 6-in jaw crusher, Chipmunk jaw crusher, riffle, Pro-splitter table and vibratory feeder, Gilson testing screens, Ro-Tap sieve shakers, suitable sieves, sieve cleaner, gyratory screen separator, Draiswerke pulverizing system, Holmes pulverizer, variety of scales and balances, Buehler polishing table.
Dust-generating equipment is appropriately enclosed and vented; equipment used on potentially explosive materials is shielded and sealed to guard again electrical spark.
Unit Processing Laboratory (wet): Deister table, Mozley table, 18 x 24 commercial jig, 4 x 6 jig, Carpco portable laboratory cyclone unit, Krebs dense medium cyclone system instrumented with data acquisition and computer control, Franz isodynamic separator, wet magnetic separator, high-tension electrostatic separator, flotation cells (Denver, Wemco, Hazen-Quinn), batch pressure filter, wet-vac wet sieve tester, air-jet sieve, centrifuge, batch vacuum filter.
B. CHEMICAL AND SURFACE ANALYSIS
Coal Petrography and Mineralogy: ISI scanning electron microscope with microanalyzer attachment; optical microscopes: Bausch & Lomb Sterozoom, Nikon, Unitron binocular; Buehler Micromet microhardness tester. This laboratory is equipped with a darkroom.
Coal Testing and Analysis: Leco proximate analyzer, Leco sulfur determinator, Leco automatic calorimeter, Leco CHN elemental analyzer, Microtrac II particle size analyzer, Parr adiabatic calorimeter, Preiser/Mineco rapid sulfur analyzer, Fisher Isotemp programmable ashing furnace, density gradient column.
Surface Characterization: Komline-Sanderson Zeta meter; Rame-Hart contact angle goniometer; Metrohm computerized titration potentiometry; Tronac computerized titration microcalorimetry; Sanplatec vacuum dessicators; Orion Research Microprocessor pH/mV meter 811; Orion combined pH electrodes, platinum/combined redox electrodes, and ion-selective electrodes; Orion dissolved oxygen sensor; foam/froth stabometer; potential-controllable microflotaion cell.
C. ROCK MECHANICS
Testing: Satec Stiff Testing System, model C600MB, 300-ton capacity, configured for compressive testing; Satec Stiff Testing System, model TC-55, 25-ton capacity configured for both compressive and tensile testing (both machines are digitally controlled and have digital data acquisition systems); direct shear machine. Photoelastic apparatus with bi-axial chamber allows the studying of stresses under two-dimensional loading conditions.
Modeling: The modeling laboratory is built with a stiff floor that may be used as a resistance plate for large-scale testing of rock or support systems. The breech of a naval gun has been converted into a high-pressure triaxial chamber for rock specimens of up to one cubic foot.
Field Studies: Equipment readily available for field research includes instruments for stress determination, monitoring of support performance, measurement of deformation and strain, bore scoping, and in situ testing of rock properties.
The laboratory devoted to mine ventilation is well equipped for both research and instruction. The laboratory gives the student "hands-on" experience with ventilation instrumentation in addition to supporting instruction in ventilation theory. The laboratory has a series of wind tunnels, ducting, and instrumentation for pressure, flow and air quality measurements. A number of computer packages are available for comparing simulation output with laboratory experimental data. These packages are sufficient for full-scale mine ventilation network analysis.
Air Flow Studies:
- Low turbulence wind tunnel with 400mm by 400mm measuring chamber, controllable velocity range is 0-13 meters per second;
- An axial fan testing stand, including a 30-inch diameter wind tunnel, consisting of a 34-inch adjustable pitch axial fan, 25-horsepower motor speed frequency driver, computerized monitoring and control system allow for the remote monitoring and control of the fan speed and blade pitch;
- An auxiliary tubing ventilation system consisting of 150 feet of reinforced 18-inch diameter tubing network combined with two 21-inch diameter auxiliary axial fans that can be connected in series or parallel;
- A climatic simulation unit that demonstrates the sensitivity of the psychrometric values to the many parameters of the underground environment;
- Physical model of a mine ventilation network, based on four-inch diameter PVC pipe, incorporated with a mine ventilation expert system to achieve remote monitoring and control for both research and teaching purposes;
- Precision smoke tunnel.
Flow Measurements: Thermo (hot-wire) anemometers, vane anemometers (both mechanical and electronic), Pitot tubes;
Pressure Measurements: Incline manometers, portable precision electronic manometers with a range of 1.0 Pa (N/m2); absolute pressure: aneroid barometers, electronic absolute pressure gauges.
Air Quality Measurements: Instrumentation is available for the following gases: CO, CO2, CH4, O2, NOx; coal dust analysis: gravimetric, light-scattering Miniram.
E. MINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
The Mine Electrical Systems Laboratory is both a research and teaching laboratory. Power equipment includes a dissectible transformer, induction motors, dc motors and generators, synchronous machines, a Universal Laboratory Machine, and a ground fault protection demonstrator. Control equipment includes an ac motor controller, dc motor controller, solid-state training panel, ac electrical training panel, dc electrical panel, two Allen Bradley SLC 5/03 programmable logic controllers and control software, and a 10-hp programmable reduced voltage motor starter housed inside a conveyor belt starter enclosure. Data collection and analysis equipment includes a 100 MHz storage oscilloscope, a 20 MHz portable oscilloscope, 11 MHz function generator, an I/O Tech Daqbook 200, and I/O tech Daqbook 210, a wide assortment of voltage and current probes, digital meters, and data collection and post processing software.
F. ENVIRONMENT AND GEOTECHNOLOGY
Giddings soil probe equipped with recording cone penetrometer; frame, test tank, air pallet, and hydraulic ram for modeling ripper studies; nuclear density gauge; Geotest master triaxial permeability panel and triaxial load frame.
G. SAMPLE PREPARATION
The department has rock saws, drills, grinders and polishers. Equipment is maintained separately for coal and non-coal samples.